Neopolitan Chords- built of the flat second (super tonic) of a major or minor scale most of the time it will be in first inversion also called tri tone substitution can be used instead of ii V IV chord


Augmented Sixth Chords- The bottom note of the augmented Sixth chord is built on the lowered sixth note of the key.
Build a major triad and then add an augmented sixth ontop... you get a German!

Lose the fifth and you will have an Italian

Change the fifth to an augmented fourth and you will have a French! (tritone)

Remember that the Augmented sixth interval must be resolved outward by half step.

The Italian augmented-sixth chord doubles the third above the bass, the French adds the fourth, and the German adds the fifth, so:

There are three types of augmented sixths: the Italian sixth, the French sixth, and the German sixth. Those chords are generally used to reach the dominant or tonic chord in second inversion when performing a cadence in major and minor keys.


  • An altered tone is always present.
  • The chord represents an chromatic modification of the the IV6 in the so-called "Phrygian" cadence.
  • The chord functions invariably as dominant preparation. In the most common instance, the ^6 is in the bass (natural ^6 in minor, lowered ^6 in major) and the raised ^4 is in the top voice.
  • The augmented-6th chord is enharmonically equivalent to the interval of a minor seventh, and likewise, it has an obligatory (but very different) resolution! Both voices of the characteristic interval (the ^6 and the raised ^4) move by semitone to ^5.

used instead of ii IV
not a six chord it refers to the six above the bass of the chord

borrowed chord- in a major key you can borrow a chord from the parallel key in c you can use chords from c minor



Modulations:
  • Common Chord (pivot chord)- chord exists in two keys
  • Abrupt- random and out of no where
  • Chromatic-
  • phrase- end of phrase new phrase starts in different key