progressions vs. retrogressions I V

progressions

up in seconds
I ii iii IV V vi vii0


down in thirds
I vi IV ii vii0 V iii I


down in fifths
I VI vii0 iii vi ii V I 2 5 1 turn around used in jazz



retrogression is the opposite of the progression

5 to 3 is blah 3 chord is bad



primary triads I IV V
secondary vi ii vii0

Cadences:

Final =V-I ( perfect authentic)
IV-I (Plagal or ah men)
vii0-I (imperfect authentic)
stop on V or viio= half
V-vi= deceptive
Phrygian cadence= IV6 to V
perfect V or IV to I both chords have to be in root position stops on last chord must have root

notes that dont fit in the chord are non harmonic tones


SECOND INVERSION CHORDS
cadential 64 highlights 5 built off of tonic

passing tone64- passing through approached and left by a step

petal64 - same note stays on the bottom happens over a 4 chord

apregiated64- outlines chord tones in 1 chord uses every inversion

suprano- up (stem)
alto-down
tener-up
bass-down

4 part writing
tener and bass are written in bass clef
suprano and tener layer 2
soprano middle c to high g
alto- g to d
tener c to g
bass- low e to a high c

rules and tips
-between adjecent voices you can not excede an octave
-never cross voices
-closed voicing - no chord tone can fit between s a and t parts
-open sounds more epic closed sounds tense
-root position and second inversion double the bass
first inversion double the soprano
-on diminished chords must be in first inversion but double the bass
NO PARALLEL 5THS OR OCTAVES!!! THEY ARE FORBIDDEN!!!!
NO AUGMENTED 2NDS
retain common tone



terms
-parallel motion notes move same direction same intravel
-contrary motion notes move in oposite directioon
-similar- same direction different intravel
oblique- one note stays the same and the other moves




steps
step 1) figure out notes in each chords

step 2) write out bass line

3) place all notes on staff using all rules

4) do not move to the next chord until you have checked for errors

A) stems!! use layers grand staff

B)1234 on bottom changes layers
C) lift stems "L"