Harmonic Series - Overtone Series

Circle of Fifths-shows the relationships among the twelve tones of the chromatic scale, their corresponding key signatures, and the associated major and minor keys.

Major Scale- the major scale or Ionian scale is one of the diatonic scale s. It is made up of seven distinct note s, plus an eighth

Minor Scale-a diatonic scale with a third scale degree at an interval of a minor third above the tonic.

Tonic-The note upon which a scale or key is based; the first note of a scale or key; the keynote.

Supertonic-the second degree or note of a diatonic scale (in other words, immediately "above" the tonic).

Mediant-The third note of the scale, so called because of its position halfway between the tonic and dominant.

Subdominant-That tone that is one step below the dominant of a key.

Dominant-The fifth tone of the scale.

Submediant-That tone which is positioned as far below the tonic as the mediant is above the tonic, i.e., the sixth step of the scale, the superdominant.

Leading Tone- the major seventh of a scale, so called because it lies a semitone below the tonic and "leads" towards it.

Octave-An interval spanning seven diatonic degrees, eleven semitones.

Half Step-A semitone.

Whole Step-An interval of two semitones, a major second.

Mode - Ionian and Aeolian-major, minor scales

Tetrachord-The perfect fourth and the set of four diatonic, chromatic, or enharmonic notes encased therein.

Pentatonic Scale-A scale of five tones. It is used in Aftican, Far Eastern, and Native American music. The pentatonic scale has been used in 20th century compositions as well.

Keys
to get a minor scale take the major scale and throw three flats at it to get the natural minor
1 2 flat three use that key
flats and sharps cancel each other out
major go up a minor third and minor go down a third
5th chord is always major
major 3rd have 4 half steps
minor 3rd have three half steps
to find the key signature with flats
go back a flat
then go down a minor third using FACEGBD
when using sharp
pencil trick
go down a minor third
by lowering the third degree in a major scale you get the melodic minor scale play natural minor going down

Modes
Modes: Ionian major chord
tonic- first note of scale
second-super tonic
third-median
four-subdominant
fifth-dominant
six-submediant
seven-leading tone

dorian- play major scale with flat three and flat seven or think down a whole step and use that key,

phrygian- think down a major third and use that key or flat 2 3 6 7

lydian- raise fourth degree major chord

mixolydian- play over dominate chord (5 chord) flat the seventh degree

aeolian- (natural minor scale) play over minor chord

locrian- go up a half step and use that key play over a diminished chord

look at key signature find tonal center what number note is the tonal center in the scale


Tools
meter- 8 on bottom is compound except for 3/8 grouped in three's
6/8 two major beats
beams are by the beat
half step- semitone or minor second

F# C# G# D# A# E# B#
Bb Eb Ab Db Gb Cb Fb
pencil trick
sharps go up a half step

minors
FACEGBD
go down a minor third (three half steps)
major key flat the third will give you a minor scale C D E F G A B C C D Eb use key of e flat(3 flats)

Modes
Ionian-major scale
Dorian Flat 3 and 7
Phrygian- flat 2 3 6 7 or down minor 3rd
Lydian-raise the fourth
Mixolydian flat 7
Aeolian- natural minor
Locrian-up a half step use that key

note tendancy
7-8
5-1
6-5
2-1
4-3